HISTORY Page 3
A Brief Timeline of the Technology of Photography
Photography is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as film or an electronic sensor. The word "photography" comes from the French photographie which is based on the Greek words meaning "light" and "stylus" or "paintbrush" together meaning "drawing with light."
The camera or Camera Obscura (Camera, Latin for “room” and Obscura, Latin for “dark”) is the image-forming device, and photographic film or a silicon electronic image sensor is the sensing medium. The respective recording medium can be the film itself, or a digital electronic or magnetic memory.
In ancient times, Camera Obscuras were used to form images on walls in darkened rooms through a pinhole in the opposite wall or doorway.
In the 16th
Century, the Camera Obscura was improved by utilizing a simple lens.
1666 Isaac Newton demonstrated that light is the source of color. He used a prism to split sunlight into its constituent colors and another to recombine them to make white light.
1725 Johann Schulze discovered the darkening of silver salts by the action of light.
1758 John Dolland was a British telescope maker who patented the discovery of the achromatic lens, this improved the camera obscura image.
1801 Thomas Young suggested that the retina at the back of the eye contains three types of color sensitive receptors, one sensitive to blue light, one to green and one to red. The brain interprets various combinations of these colors to form any other color in the visible spectrum.
1802 Thomas Wedgwood produced silhouettes of opaque objects by contact printing them on silver nitrate coated paper; however, the images were unfixed and faded in daylight.
1825 J. Nicephore Niepce produced the first permanent image (Heliograph or Heliogravure) using a camera obscura and white bitumen. It required 8 hours to expose.
1829 Louis J. M. Daguerre started a partnership with Niepce.
1834 Fox Talbot experimented using silver chloride coated paper to yield "negatives" of silhouettes.
1835 Fox Talbot, using his small "mousetrap" cameras, photographed the inside of his library window at Lacock Abbey, creating the first negative.
1837 Daguerre, following experiments on his own he evolved a workable process (Daguerreotype). A silver iodide coated copper plate was exposed and developed with mercury to give a single direct positive. He removed the remaining silver iodide with a warm solution of cooking salt, they took 30 minutes to develop.
1839 Daguerre's Daguerreotype process was released for general use in return for state pensions given to himself and Isidore Niepce.
1839 Fox Talbot hurriedly prepared and presented papers at the Royal Institution and the Royal Society. Unlike the Daguerre process the image is recorded as a "negative" and had to be printed via a similar process to produce the final "positive". Many positive prints can be made from a single negative.
1839 Sir John Herschel suggests fixing Talbot's images in sodium thiosulphate and coined the terms "photography", "negative" and "positive".
1840 Fox Talbot, following suggestions, improved his process of using silver iodide and developing in gallic acid. The use of paper negatives meant that the images were not as detailed as Daguerreotypes.
1841 Fox Talbot patented "calotype" (later "Talbotype") a negative / positive process with a 5 minute exposure time.
1841 Joseph Max Petzval first mathematically calculated and developed a relatively fast f/3.6 photographic lens that effectively reduced Daguerreotype exposures to 1 minute.
1844 Fox Talbot publishes "Pencil of Nature" the first book with photographic illustrations, with glued in calotypes.
1847 Niepce De St. Victor discovers the use of albumen to bind silver salts on glass base. Albumen process requires a 10 minute exposure. Talbot patents the process in England.
1850 Blanquart-Evrard proposes use of albumen for printing paper. Albumen paper was never patented and was popularly used for 40 years.
1851 Scott Archer proposes "Collodion" process. Collodion (a solution of nitrocellulose in a mixture of ethyl alcohol and ethyl ether) forms a binder for silver iodide on glass. Exposure and processing is performed immediately after coating the plate. Scott Archer did not patent the process and died in poverty. Two versions of this process were "Ambrotype" and "Tintype". Exposure was about 10 seconds. The Collodion process greatly expanded photography and brought everyone into contact with its results.
1861 James Clerk Maxwell demonstrated the formation of colors by combining three light sources of red, green and blue. All other colors, including white, are a mixture of these primary colors. The colors combine by an additive process.
1868 Louis Ducos du Hauron published a book suggesting how a range of color photographic methods might work, but they could not yet be put into practice.
1871 Dr. Richard Leach Maddox, writing in the ‘British Journal Of Photography’ suggested gelatin, derived from a protein found in animal bones, as a collodion substitute. Gelatin "Emulsions" and "Dry Plates" were marketed by various manufacturing companies from 1878, and gelatin is still used today. Exposure times of 1/25th second could be achieved.
1887 Hannibal Goodwin, a New York clergyman filed a patent for roll film with a flexible plastic base.
1888 George Eastman produced the first simplified camera system for the general public, the Kodak Number 1, and the first mass Developing and Processing service.
1889 George Eastman produced the first transparent roll film (nitrocellulose).
Thomas Edison slit the 2 3/4 inch Kodak roll film down the middle making it 1
3/8 inch (35mm) and put transport perforations down each side - to become the
international standard for motion picture film.
1890 Hurter & Driffield devised the first independent system to give emulsions speed numbers. This essentially led to the current ISO numbers used today.
1890's The first halftone photographic reproductions appeared in daily papers, although it took another ten years before the process was fully adopted. Halftones were created by using a camera containing a ruled glass screen with a grid pattern to break up the image into tiny dots of different sizes.
1898 Kodak introduced their Folding Pocket Kodak.
1900 Kodak introduced their first Brownie.
1901 Kodak introduced the 120 film.
1902 Arthur Korn devises practical phototelegraphy technology (reduction of photographic images to signals that can be transmitted by wire to other locations). Wire-Photos were in wide use in Europe by 1910 and transmitted intercontinentally by 1922.
H. Vogel's research led to panchromatic film using sensitizing dyes. This type of
film is sensitive to all visible colors.
1904 Augusta and Louis Lumiere patented "Autochrome" the first additive color screen film material.
1912 Siegrist and Fischer, two German chemists invented the action of color coupling, so dyes required for color film processing could be created by combining appropriate developer oxidation products with color former chemicals. However the process was not reliable enough to start film production.
1923 Doc Harold Edgerton invents the xenon flash lamp and strobe photography.
Barnack, an employer of E. Leitz designed a camera for use with a microscope
using motion picture film, which became the first precision 35mm camera. It was
called the Leica derived from Leitz camera. The capabilities of the Leica made a new form of photojournalism possible.
1936 Development of Kodachrome multi-layered reversal color film.
1936 Agfa, a German company, was the first to sell a film, Agfacolor, with the color formers in the film. Towards the end of the second World War their closely guarded secrets were "liberated".
1936 Introduction by IHAGEE of the Ihagee Kine Exakta 1, the first 35mm Single Lens reflex camera.
1940s Large factory size laboratories took over film processing from individual chemists. However chemists still continued to sell films.
1942 Kodacolor, Kodak's first color print film.
Magnum, arguably the most famous photographic agency in the world, was founded
in 1947 by Henri Cartier-Bresson, David Seymour and Robert Capa. The
agency developed a style of photojournalism that was largely based upon the
capability of the Leica 35 mm camera. Magnum is still an exclusive club of
illustrious photographers with membership limited to thirty six.
1947 Dr. Edwin Land Invented an "instant" picture process, first called Polaroid Land. The special camera sandwiched the exposed negative with a receiving positive paper and spread the processing chemicals between the two, after processing these were peeled apart.
1957 The first image scanned into a digital computer.
1961 Eugene F. Lally of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory published the first description of how to produce still photos in a digital domain using a mosaic photosensor.
1963 Dr. Edwin Land's Polaroid Corporation's research team invented the first instant color picture material.
1973 Fairchild Semiconductor releases the first large image forming CCD chip; 100 rows and 100 columns.
1975 - Bryce Bayer of Kodak develops the Bayer filter mosaic pattern for CCD color image sensors.
AE-1 the first 35mm camera with built in microprocessor is introduced
1980s A system called DX coding was introduced for 35mm films. The cassettes have an auto-sensing code printed on them which enable certain cameras to automatically set the film speed, this information can also be used by processing laboratories.
1984 Canon demonstrated the first digital still camera.
1985 Minolta introduces 7000 auto-focus 35mm SLR camera.
1986 Kodak scientists invent the world's first megapixel sensor.
Microsoft Windows 3.1 is released
1990 Adobe Photoshop 1.0 image manipulation program is introduced for Apple Macintosh computers
1993 Adobe Photoshop is made available for MS-Windows computers.
1996 Advanced Photo System (APS) is introduced. APS uses a cassette which holds 24 mm wide film on a base which has a magnetic data strip as well as fine grained emulsion. When the film is being developed automatic handling mechanisms locate the correct frames and determines the required print format from the data strip. After processing the film is rewound into the cassette and a digitally mastered index print of all the frames is created as a reference for reordering.
1998 The first consumer megapixel cameras were introduced.
2000 Canon introduced the EOS D30, the first digital SLR for the consumer market with a CMOS image sensor.
2002 Contax introduced the NDigital, the first SLR digital camera with a CCD image sensor the same size as a 35 mm frame.
2005 AgfaPhoto files for bankruptcy. Production of Agfa brand consumer films ends.
2006 Dalsa produces 111 megapixel CCD image sensor, developed for astronomy, the highest resolution at its time.
2008 – Polaroid announces it is discontinuing the production of all instant film products, citing the rise of digital imaging technology.
2009 - Kodak announces the discontinuance of Kodachrome film.
Additional History pages:
Highlights of the Twin City Camera Club
-Honor Roll of Presidents
-You are Here
**DISCLAIMER: A Brief Timeline of the Technology of Photography is being provided only as interesting information for our members. The Twin City Camera Club and it's Webmaster, can not guarantee the validity of the information as it was found through many sources and for the most part has not been verified.
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